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Sunday, November 27, 2011

My Allah, My Life

My Allah, My Life

by Zeba Bukhari



This earth, this duniya, is a drop of a sea
The final destination, The Akhirra, which is beyond infinity

This test and trial makes me blue
Fighting shaytaan is the hardest thing I ever had to do

Years and days will quickly go by
To Allah alone I cry, who will always stay close by my side

Allah has commanded us to give Zakah and Pray,
This Deen is of Allah and his Messenger, not some play
So let us repent for the sins we commit night & day

My days are lonely and they are cold,
My goal is to obey Allah as my days grow old & he takes my soul

Allah is present everywhere, Allhamdu lillah my connection with him is strong
He lives in my heart, his mercy and blessings are enormous & beyond

When I sacrifice and give up something for his sake,
In return he rewards me with something better in its place

My life is corrupted and my days are rough,
Sometimes my tests and trials get so tough,
But for the sake of Allah, it's never enough

Allah & his Quran is my guide
If he wasn't there for me, I'd break, swelter & die

My mother is gone far & away,
A visitor has descended upon her grave,
Comforting her & soothing her endless pain

She was in her Jahalliya days, Ya Allah only if she prayed!
Her Salaat & good Am'als would have saved her on this day

I know my mother is gone, and Jannah lies in her feet
She is distant from me, buried in too deep
If not in this world, then in the next we will surely meet

37 Points To Implement in Your Life.


37 Points To Implement in Your Life..



1. Pray in the last third of the night.
2. Go to Fajr and Isha in congregation.
3. Say Adhkaar in the morning and evening.
4. Remember Death often.
5. Contemplate over the creation of Allah and how vast and beatiful his creation is.
6. Gain some knowledge of the Deen daily.
7. Remember the purpose of life
8. Fast Voluntarily
9. Pray as if it is your last prayer
10. Read Quran
11. Give sadaqa
12. Do dhikr
13. Listen to Quran recitation
14. Read Seerah/Listen to lectures about it (esp by Shaykh Anwar al Awlaki)
15. Read about the sahabah/Listen to lectures about them
16. Say often, "Laa ilaha illa Allah".
17. When you have gained knowledege, inform others of it
18. Try to go to regular circles to have discussions about Islam
19. Smile for the sake of Allah
20. Reading Surah Khaf with deep thought and understanding, until it awakens u to the dajaalic system that we live in.
21. Alaways think about allah, thinking is a faridah in islam
22. Learn about science in light of Quran and Islam.
23. Call friends and tell them you love them for the sake of Allah.
24. Protect ourselves from Shaitan
25. Make sincere Dua 4 the Ummah
26. Try to help others as much as you can
27. Make reading Qur'an regular
28. Read certain surahs at specific times, i.e. Surah Mulk at night
29. Thank Allah(swt) witthin your heart everday till the day you die , then thank him yourself for everything ! Allah hu akbar
30. Make Dua' for your bother/sister
31. Love for your brother what you love for yourself
32. Discuss Islamic matters with believing brothers/sisters - share knowledge, educate each other
33. Choose obedience over disobedience
34. Uttering "Inna Lillahi wa inna Ileyhi raji'oon –

To Allah we belong and to Allah we return" whenever you are afflicted with anything whether it be small or big.

Allah(SWT) says: "Be sure we shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods, lives and the fruits (of your toil) but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere. Those who, when misfortune strikes them, say: 'Indeed we belong to Allah and to Him is our return. Those are the ones upon whom are blessings and mercy from their Lord and it is those who are rightly guided."

[Sûrah al-Baqarah: 155]

The Prophet (peace be upon him)said:"No fatigue, illness, anxiety, sorrow, harm or sadness afflicts any Muslim, even to the extent of a thorn pricking him, without Allah wiping out his sins by it." [Sahîh al-Bukhârî and Sahîh Muslim]

35. Look at how complex our bodies are (circulatory system, nervous system, etc), and realize that only Allah (SWT) could have made something like that.
36. Love for your brother what you love for yourself
37. Smile, make people happy.

Muharram moon sighted


ISLAMABAD: The moon for the Islamic month of Muharram-ul-Haram has been sighted in various parts of the country, Geo News reported Saturday.

The first day of the holy month of Muharram-ul-Haram would fall on November 27 while Ashura would be observed on December 6.

Tahajjud Prayer

   

Tahajjud Prayer


Tahajjud Prayer is part of the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), which Muslims are preferred to follow all the time.

In his famous work, Fiqh As-Sunnah, Sheikh Sayyid Sabiq elaborates on the subject as follows:

Ordering His Messenger to perform Tahajjud, Allah Almighty says what means:

*{And during a part of the night, pray Tahajjud beyond what is incumbent on you; maybe your Lord will raise you to a position of great glory.}* (Al-Israa’ 17:79)

This order, although it was specifically directed to the Prophet, also refers to all Muslims, since the Prophet is a perfect example and guide for us in all matters.

Moreover, performing Tahajjud Prayers regularly qualifies one as one of the righteous and makes one earn Allah's bounty and mercy. In praising those who perform the late night Prayers, Allah says what means:

*{And they who pass the night prostrating themselves before their Lord and standing.}* (Al-Furqan 25:64)

Next to these Qur’anic verses, there also exist a number of hadiths that reinforce the importance of Tahajjud.

`Abdullah ibn Salam reported:

“When the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) came to Madinah, the people gathered around him and I was one of them. I looked at his face and understood that it was not the face of a liar. The first words I heard him say were: ‘O people, spread the salutations, feed the people, keep the ties of kinship, and pray during the night while the others sleep, and you will enter Paradise in peace.’” (At-Tirmidhi.)

Salman Al-Farsi quoted the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) as saying:

“Observe the night Prayer; it was the practice of the righteous before you and it brings you closer to your Lord and it is penance for evil deeds and erases the sins and repels disease from the body.” (At-Tabarani)

Etiquette of Prayer

The following acts are recommended for one who wishes to perform the Tahajjud Prayer:

· Upon going to sleep, one should make the intention to perform the Prayers. Abu Ad-Darda' quoted the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) as saying:

“Whoever goes to his bed with the intention of getting up and praying during the night, but, being overcome by sleep, fails to do that, he will have recorded for him what he has intended, and his sleep will be reckoned as a charity (an act of mercy) for him from his Lord.” (An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah)

· On waking up, it is recommended that one wipes the face, use a toothbrush, and look to the sky and make the supplication which has been reported from the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).

Abu Hudhaifa reported:

"Whenever the Prophet intended to go to bed, he would recite: (With Your name, O Allah, I die and I live)." And when he woke up from his sleep, he would say: (All the Praises are for Allah Who has made us alive after He made us die (sleep) and unto Him is the Resurrection.)" (Al-Bukhari)

· One should begin with two quick rak`ahs and then one may pray whatever one wishes after that. `A’ishah said:

“When the Prophet prayed during the late-night, he would begin his Prayers with two quick rak`ahs.” (Muslim)

· It is recommended that one wakes up one's family, for Abu Hurairah quoted the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) as saying:

“May Allah bless the man who gets up during the night to pray and wakes up his wife and who, if she refuses to get up, sprinkles water on her face. And may Allah bless the woman who gets up during the night to pray and wakes up her husband and who, if he refuses, sprinkles water on his face.” (Ahmad)

The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) also said:

“If a man wakes his wife and prays during the night or they pray two rak`ahs together, they will be recorded among those (men and women) who (constantly) make remembrance of Allah.” (Abu Dawud.)

· If one gets sleepy while performing Tahajjud, one should sleep. This is based on the hadith narrated by `A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her), who quoted Allah’s Messenger as saying:

“When one of you gets up during the night for Prayer and his Qur’anic recital gets mixed up to the extent that he does not know what he says, he should lie down.” (Muslim.)

Recommended Time for Tahajjud

Tahajjud may be performed in the early part of the night, the middle part of the night, or the latter part of the night, but after the obligatory `Isha’ Prayer (night Prayer).

While describing the Prophet’s way of performing Prayer, Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said:

“If we wanted to see him praying during the night, we could see him praying. If we wanted to see him sleeping during the night, we could see him sleeping. And sometimes he would fast for so many days that we thought he would not leave fasting throughout that month. And sometimes he would not fast (for so many days) that we thought he would not fast during that month.” (Al-Bukhari, Ahmad and An-Nasa’i.)

Commenting on this subject, Ibn Hajar says:

“There was no specific time in which the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) would perform his late night Prayer; but he used to do whatever was easiest for him.”

Best Time for Tahajjud

It is best to delay this Prayer to the last third portion of the night. Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) quoted the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) as saying:

“Our Lord descends to the lowest heaven during the last third of the night, inquiring: ‘Who will call on Me so that I may respond to him? Who is asking something of Me so I may give it to him? Who is asking for My forgiveness so I may forgive him?’” (Al-Bukhari)

`Amr ibn `Absah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that he heard the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) saying:

“The closest that a slave comes to his Lord is during the middle of the latter portion of the night. If you can be among those who remember Allah the Exalted One at that time, then do so.” (At-Tirmidhi)

The Number of Rak`ahs in Tahajjud

Tahajjud Prayer does not entail a specific number of rak`ahs that must be performed, nor is there any maximum limit that may be performed. It would be fulfilled even if one prayed just one rak`ah of Witr after `Isha’.

Samurah ibn Jundub (may Allah be pleased with him) said:

“The Messenger of Allah ordered us to pray during the night, a little or a lot, and to make the last of the Prayer the Witr Prayer.” (At-Tabarani and Al-Bazzar)

The Virtues and Rights of Marriage

1. It is mentioned in a Hadith that this world has been created to be utilised and that of all the things that are utilised in this world, there is nothing better than a pious woman. In other words, if a person is fortunate enough to get a pious wife, it will be a great blessing. It is also a mercy from Allah Ta'ala that she is actually a comfort for the husband and a means for his success in this world and in the hereafter. A person enjoys comfort from such a woman for his worldly needs and she also assists him in fulfilling his religious duties.

2. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "Marriage is my way and my sunnah." "The one who does not act upon my sunnah is not of me." That is, there is no relationship between him and me. This is actually a warning and a threat to the one who does not practice on the sunnah and a mention of Rasulullah's sallallahu alayhi wa sallam anger on such a person. It is therefore necessary to be extremely cautious in this regard. Furthermore, how can a Muslim bear to have Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam displeased with him for even a moment. May Allah Ta'ala grant us death before that day comes when a Muslim is able to bear the displeasure of Allah and His Rasûl sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.

It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "Marry so that I can be proud (of your numbers) on the day of judgement over the other nations." In other words, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam likes his ’ummah to be in large numbers and more than the other nations. If this happens, his ’ummah will be carrying out more good deeds, and in so doing he will receive more rewards and gain closer proximity to Allah Ta'ala. This is because whoever from his ’ummah does good deeds, does so through his teachings. Therefore, the more people who act on his teachings, the more reward he will receive for conveying those teachings. We also learn from this that whenever and however possible, we should undertake to carry out those tasks and actions that will take us closer to Allah Ta'ala, and that we should not display any laziness in this regard.

It is mentioned in a Hadith that on the day of judgement the people will be standing in 120 lines. Out of these, 40 lines of people will be from the other nations while 80 lines of people will be from the ’ummah of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. Glory be to Allah! How beloved Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is to Him.

The one who is able to (fulfil the rights of a wife) should marry. As for the one who does not have sufficient wealth (to fulfil the rights of a wife), he should fast. That is, he should fast so that there will be a decrease in his desires. Fasting is actually a means of curbing his desires. If a person does not have a very dire need for women, and instead has an average need, and he is able to pay for her basic necessities, then nikah is sunnat-e-mu’akkadah for such a person. As for the person who has a very urgent need, nikah will be fard upon him. This is because there is a fear that he will commit adultery and thereby get the sin of committing a haram act. If a person has a very urgent need but is financially incapable of maintaining a wife, then such a person must fast abundantly. Later, when he has sufficient funds to maintain a wife, he must get married.

3. It is mentioned in a Hadith that children are the flowers of jannah. This means that the amount of joy and happiness one will experience on seeing the flowers of paradise, that same amount of joy and happiness is experienced when he looks at his children. And we know fully well that children can only be obtained through marriage.

4. It is mentioned in a Hadith that when the status of a person is increased in jannah, he asks out of wonder: "How did I receive all this?" (That is, "How did I receive such a high status when I hadn't carried out so many good deeds to deserve such a status?") It will be said to this person that this high status is on account of your children asking for forgiveness on your behalf. In other words, your children had asked for forgiveness on your behalf. In return for that, you have been accorded this status.

5. It is mentioned that the child who is born out of a miscarriage (i.e. it is born before the due date) will "fight"(wrangle) with its Creator when its parents are entered into jahannam. In other words, this child will go to extremes in interceding on behalf of its parents and will ask Allah Ta'ala to remove its parents from jahannam. Through His bounty, Allah Ta'ala will accept the intercession of this child and He will be soft and lenient towards it. It will be said to this child: "O siqt (which means, miscarried foetus) who is quarrelling with its Lord! Enter your parents into jannah." So this child will draw its parents out of jahannam with its navel cord and enter both of them into jannah. We learn from this, that children of this sort, who are actually a by-product of marriage, will also be of help in the hereafter.

6. It is mentioned in a Hadith that when the husband and wife look at each other (with love), Allah Ta'ala looks at both of them with mercy.

7. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Allah Ta'ala has taken it upon Himself (i.e. out of His mercy, He as taken the responsibility) of helping the person who gets married in order to attain purity from that which Allah has made haram. In other words, the person who marries in order to save himself from adultery with the intention of obeying Allah Ta'ala, Allah will help and assist him in his expenses and other affairs.

8. It is mentioned in a Hadith that two rakats of salat performed by a married person is better than 82 rakats performed by an unmarried person. In another Hadith, 70 rakats have been mentioned instead of 82 rakats. It is possible that this means that 70 rakats are written in favour of the person who fulfils the necessary rights of his wife and family, and that 82 rakats are in favour of the person who apart from fulfilling their necessary rights, serves them more with his life, wealth and good habits.

9. It is mentioned in a Hadith that it is a major sin for a person to be neglectful with regard to those whom he is responsible for (and to have shortcomings in fulfilling their needs).

10. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "I have not left behind any test and tribulation on men more harmful than women." In other words, of all the things that are harmful for men, women are the most harmful. This is because, out of his love for a woman, a man loses all his senses, so much so that he does not even take the commands and orders of Allah Ta'ala into consideration. Therefore, a person must not fall in love with a woman in such a way that he has to act contrary to the ShariAh. For example, her demands for her food and clothing are more than what the husband can afford. In such circumstances, never accept any bribes in order to supplement your present income. Instead, give her from the halal earnings which Allah Ta'ala has blessed you with. You should continue teaching your womenfolk and inculcate respect and good manners in them. Do not allow them to become impudent and disrespectful. The intellect of women is deficient; it is therefore incumbent to take special measures in reforming them.

11. It is mentioned in a Hadith that you should not propose to a girl when your fellow Muslim brother has already proposed to her until he gets married or gives up this proposal. In other words, when a person has sent a proposal to a particular family and there is a likelihood of their replying in the affirmative, another person should not send a proposal to that same family. However, if they reject this first person, or he himself changes his mind, or they are not too happy with him and are still hesitant in giving a reply, it will be permissible for another person to send a proposal for the same girl.

The same rule applies to the transactions of buying and selling. That is, if a person is busy buying or selling something, then as long as they do not separate or abandon the transaction, another person should not enter into their transaction and should not offer a price above or below that which has been already offered when there is an indication that they are about to come to an agreement. Understand this well, and know that a kafir is also included in this rule.

12. It is mentioned in a Hadith that a woman is either married because of her Din, her wealth or her beauty. Choose the one with Din, may your hands become dusty. In other words, a man may prefer a woman who is religiously inclined. While another may prefer one who is wealthy. While yet another may prefer one who is beautiful. However, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam says that one should choose a religiously inclined woman and that it is preferable to marry such a woman. However, if the circumstances are such that a woman is very pious but at the same time she is so ugly that one's nature does not find her acceptable and there is a fear that if he marries such a woman there will be no mutual understanding between them, and that he will be neglectful in fulfilling her rights, then in such a case he should not marry such a woman. "May your hands become dusty" is an Arabic mode of expression which is used on different occasions. In this context, it is meant to create a yearning and a desire for a pious woman.

13. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the best wife is one whose mahr is very simple. That is, it is very easy for the man to fulfil her mahr. These days, there is the habit of specifying a very high mahr. People should abstain from this.

14. It is mentioned in a Hadith that you should look for a good place for your sperms because a woman gives birth to children that resemble her brothers and sisters. In other words, marry a woman who comes from a pious and noble family because the children generally resemble the maternal relations. Although the father also has some influence over the child's resemblance, we learn from this Hadith that the mother's influence is greater. If the wife is from a disreputable and irreligious family, the children who will be born will be similar to that family. But if this is not so, then the children who will be born will be pious and religious.

15. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the greatest right that a woman has to fulfil is to her husband, and that the greatest right that he has to fulfil is to his mother. In other words, after the rights of Allah and His Rasûl sallallahu alayhi wa sallam the woman has a very great right to fulfil to her husband, so much so that the husband's rights supersede the rights of her parents. As for the man, after the rights of Allah and His Rasûl sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, the greatest right that he has to fulfil is to his mother. We learn from this that the right of the mother supersedes that of the father.

16. It is mentioned in a Hadith that if anyone of you wishes to engage in sexual intercourse with his wife, he should recite the following duA:

The virtue of this duA is that if a child is conceived through this intercourse, shaytan will not be able to harm this child in any way.

17. There is a lengthy Hadith in which Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam addressed Abdur Rahman bin Auf radiyallahu anhu asking him to have a walimah even if it is with one sheep. In other words, even if you possess very little, you should spend. It is preferable to have the walimah after engaging in sexual intercourse with one's bride. However, many ulama have permitted it immediately after the nikah as well. It is mustahab to have a walimah

On Earning Allah’s Pleasure by Submitting to the Shari‘ah


[The invaluable ijazah of tasawwuf which was granted by Imam al-Mujahidin Sayyid Ahmad Shahid (may Allah have mercy on him) to one of his disciples is preserved and a translation of some of its key components is as follows:]


In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

Those who are travellers in the path of Allah and in particular those friends of Sayyid Ahmad, whether they are present or not, should know that those who through bay‘ah (pledge) become murids at the hands of blessed souls, their aim is to acquire the pleasure of Allah. This is dependent upon obeying the commands of His Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace). He who believes that the path towards Divine Pleasure can be obtained without obeying the Shari‘ah of the Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) is on falsehood and is deceived. His claim is false and unworthy of any attention.

The Prophetic Shari‘ah is established upon two principles:

(1) Not attributing the attributes (sifat) of the Creator to any of the creation.

(2) Abstaining and refraining from customs and rituals which were not established at the time of the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) and his caliphs (may Allah be pleased with them all).

The first condition entails (a) not believing in the fact that angels, souls of spiritual guides (pir-o-murshid), teachers, seekers of knowledge, messengers or saints can remove any hardship, (b) abstaining from seeking aid from any of these [aforementioned] personalities in order to fulfil a desire or a goal, (c) denying the fact that any of them have the ability to help or defend anyone from harm and (d) considering them just as powerless (or dependent) and unaware upon the domain and sovereignty of Allah as oneself – in fact, to consider them as merely the beloved of Allah and mere guides who show the way towards the pleasure of Allah.

The second condition is to ensure that innovations (i.e. newly invented matters) do not enter the religion. This includes (a) strictly abiding in our social etiquette by all the acts of worship, customs and habits that were the practice during the era of Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), (b) refraining from innovations such as the customs of marriage, the glorification of graves, the building of large structures on graves, the spending of money on death anniversaries, ta‘ziyyah[1] and (c) putting an end to these customs as much as possible.

It is appropriate for all those who desire Allah Most High to keep these principles at their forefront and to cooperate with each other in acting upon these matters. You should specifically act upon them with the cooperation of Shah Muhammad Husayn, who, by pledging to me, has agreed about these [issues]. I have explained these matters to him in complete detail and have also given him the authority to take this agreement from you and to teach you these pure habits and rituals in my place. Therefore, it is appropriate for Shah Muhammad Husayn to adopt the injunctions which have been given to him and to turn to Allah Most High with his body and soul and brush off any dust of shirk (polytheism) and bid‘ah which may be on him by acting upon these orders externally and internally. He should make people desirous … to give bay‘ah to him.

May Allah make me and all my companions from the group which [wholeheartedly] submits to tawhid (monotheism) and is adherent to the Shari‘ah.

[Sayyid] Ahmad [Shahid], 1235 AH

Hindustan Mai Wahhabi Tahrik, (Karachi; Nafis Academy, 1980) p.75-76.


The Rights of Muslims

Overlook the faults of a Muslim.

When he cries, have mercy on him.

Conceal his shortcomings.

Accept his excuses.

Remove his difficulties.

Always be good to him.

Gaining his love is an accomplishment.

Fulfil his promises.

When he falls ill, visit him.

When he passes away, make dua for him.

Accept his invitation.

Accept his gifts.

When he shows kindness to you, show kindness to him in return.

Be grateful for his favours upon you.

Help and assist him at the time of need.

Safeguard his family and children.

Assist him in his work.

Listen to his advice.

Accept his intercession.

Do not make him feel despondent over his ambitions.

When he sneezes and says "Alhamdulillah", say "Yarhamukallah" in reply.

If you find a lost item of his, return it to him.

Reply to his greeting.

When you converse with him, speak with humility and in a good manner.

Be kind and friendly to him.

When he takes an oath with regard to you, confident that you will fulfil it, then you must fulfil it. (For example, Zayd takes an oath that Amr never goes to the bazaar and he is confident that Amr will fulfil this oath of his, then Amr must ensure that he does not act contrary to it.)

If anyone oppresses him, go to his assistance. If he oppresses someone, prevent him.

Be friendly to him and do not antagonize him.

Do not disgrace him.

Whatever you like for yourself, like for him as well.

When you meet him, make salam to him. If a man shakes the hand of a man, and a woman shakes the hand of a woman, it will be even better.

If a quarrel takes place between the two of you, do not cut-off speaking to him for more than three days.

Do not have evil thoughts of him.

Do not be jealous of him nor should you hate him.

Direct him towards good deeds and stop him from evil deeds.

Have mercy on the young and respect the elderly.

If there is a conflict between two Muslims, try and reconcile them.

Do not speak ill of him.

Do not cause him any loss; neither in his wealth nor in his honour.

If he is sitting, do not make him get up and take his place.

The wet-nurse

Meet her with respect. If she is in need of money and you are able to help her, then help her.

The Step-mother

Since she is an associate of your father, and we have been commanded to be kind and friendly to our parents' associates, the step-mother, therefore, also has certain rights over you as mentioned previously.

The elder brother

In the light of the Hadith, the elder brother is similar to one's father. From this we can deduce that the younger brother is similar to one's children. Based on this, they will have rights similar to those of parents and children. The elder sister and the younger sister should also be treated in the same manner.

Relatives

If any of your blood relatives is in need and is unable to earn, help him out with his expenses according to your financial position. Go and meet them occasionally. Do not cut-off relations with them. In fact, even if they cause you harm, it will be best for you to exercise patience.

The In-laws

In the Quran, Allah Ta'ala has mentioned the in-laws together with one's lineage. We learn from this that the father-in-law, mother-in-law, wife's brother, sister's husband, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, the previous children of the wife, the previous children of the husband - all of these have certain rights. Therefore, you have to be more considerate to them as opposed to others.

The Rights of Parents in ISLAM

1. You should not cause them any harm even if they commit any excesses.

2. Respect and honour them in your speech and dealings with them.

3. Obey them in permissible acts.

4. If they are in need of money, assist them even if they are kafirs.

5. The following rights are due to parents after their death:

(a) Continue making duas of forgiveness and mercy for them. Continue sending rewards to them in the form of optional acts of worship and charity on their behalf.

(b) Meet their friends and relatives in a friendly way and also assist them wherever possible.

(c) If you have the finances, fulfil their unpaid debts and the permissible bequests that they have made.

(d) When they pass away, abstain from crying and wailing aloud or else their souls will be troubled.

6. According to the Shariah, the rights of the paternal and maternal grandparents are similar to those of the parents and they should be regarded as such.

7. Similarly, the rights of the maternal and paternal uncles and aunts are similar to those of the parents. This has been deduced from certain Ahadith. (Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "The maternal aunt has the status of one’s mother." - Tirmidhi)

Rights of Husband in ISLAM

Allah TaAla has given great rights to the husband and has attached a lot of virtue to him. Pleasing the husband and keeping him happy is a great act of ‘ibadah and displeasing him or keeping him unhappy is a major sin.

1. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "The woman who offers her five times salat, fasts in the month of Ramadan, protects her honour and respect, and obeys her husband has the choice of entering jannah from whichever door she wishes to enter from." This means that from the eight doors of jannah she can enter through whichever door she wishes without even having to knock on that door.

2. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "The woman who passes away in such a state that her husband is pleased with her will enter jannah."

3. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "Were I to command anyone to prostrate to anyone other than Allah, I would have commanded the woman to prostrate to her husband. If the husband orders his wife to carry the boulders of one mountain to the next mountain, and the boulders of the next mountain to a third mountain, she will have to do this."

4. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "When the husband calls his wife, she should go immediately to him even if she is busy at her stove." In other words, no matter how important a task she may be busy with, she should leave it and go to him.

5. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "When a man calls his wife to engage in sexual intercourse with him and she does not go and because of this he sleeps away angrily, the angels continue cursing this woman till the morning."

6. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "When a woman troubles or displeases her husband in this world, the hûr of jannah that has been set aside for him says: "May Allah curse you! Do not trouble him. He is your guest for a few days. Soon he will leave you and come to me."

7. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "There are three types of people whose salat is not accepted, nor is any other good act of theirs accepted. One is a slave who runs away from his master. The second is a woman whose husband is displeased with her. The third is a person who is in a state of intoxication."

8. A person asked: "Who is the best woman?" Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam replied: "The best woman is one who pleases her husband when he looks at her, when he asks her to do something she obeys him, and she does not do anything that may displease him with regard to his wealth and honour."

One of the rights of the husband is that the wife should not keep any optional fasts nor offer any optional salat in his presence without his permission. Among the rights of the husband is that she should not remain in an untidy, dishevelled state. Instead, she should always remain clean and beautiful for her husband. In fact, if she remains untidy and dishevelled despite her husband ordering her to remain clean, he has the right of beating her (lightly) in order that she may obey him. Another right of the husband is that she should not leave the house without his permission irrespective of whether it be the house of a friend, relative or anyone else.

first Moharran [ shaheed ]






Friday, November 18, 2011

World's largest Holy Book of Islam on display in Kazan

The world's largest Quran, the Holy book for all Muslims, has arrived in Kazan. The huge book sized 1.5x2 meters weighs 800 kilos. The book has 632 pages, made from Scottish paper. The cover of the book is encrusted with semiprecious stones, malachite, fianites, jasper, as well as gold and silver leafs.

The book has already made a Guinness Book entry as the largest edition of the holy Muslim book. Before the summer of 2012, the world's largest Quran will be kept at Kazan's Qol-Sharif Mosque. Afterwards, the book will be taken to Bulgary for celebrations of the 1,122 years of Islam in Russia's Povolzhye region.

In Bulgary, the world's largest Quran will stay forever. The book will be stored in a special sarcophagus. The building for the book is about to be finished - it will be a museum of only one exhibit.

The book was made and printed in Italy on the order from Vozrozhdenie (Revival) Republican Foundation of Tatarstan, Tatar-Inform news agency said.

The book became possible to make owing to 1.5 million euros of donations.

Thursday, August 4, 2011

Maulana Tariq Jameel - [HD] Full Bayan in Layari *2011*

A beautiful urdu bayan by Maulana tariq Jameel recorded in HD quality.
p.s. Pay attention to when Maulana makes salaam at the start, and the people say 'ahhhh', mashallah, it shows how much they respect him and indeed we all do, may Allah preserve him.

Very Historical welcome Molana Tariq Jameel & Mufti Muhammad Naeem visit Layari and Meet with Sardar Uzair Baloch & Molana Tariq Jameel give very historical speech on 30 July 2011 at Layari

Click here for more lectures by this Shaykh:
http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL99EFF8ECA56A30AE

Maulana Tariq Jameel (complete bayan) Karwan e Aman 31July 2011 Banaras Karachi

Maulana Tariq Jameel (complete bayan) Karwan e Aman 31July 2011 Banaras Karachi

Tuesday, July 26, 2011

I'tikaaf - Complete book by Mufti Elias



Allama Ibn Qaiyyim Radiallâhu anhu says: “The basic purpose of I’tikâf is that the heart gets attached to Allâh and, with it, one attains inner composure and equanimity and pre‑occupation with the mundane things of life ceases and absorption in the eternal Reality takes its place, and the state is reached in which all fears, hopes and apprehensions are superseded by the love and remembrance of Allâh, every anxiety is transformed into the anxiety for Him and every thought and feeling is blended with the eagerness to gain His nearness and to earn His good favour, and devotion to the Almighty is generated instead of devotion to the world and it becomes the provision for the grave where there will be neither a friend nor a helper. This is the high aim and purpose of I’tikâf which is the speciality of the most sublime part of Ramadhân, i.e., the last ten days.”


Similarly, Hadhrat Shah Waliullah Radiallâhu anhu remarks, “Since I’tikâf in the masjid is a means to the attainment of peace of the mind and purification of the heart, and it affords an excellent opportunity for forging an indentity with the angels and having a share in the blissfulnes of the Night of Power and for devoting oneself to prayer and meditation Allâh has set apart the last ten days of the month of Ramadhân for it and made it a Sunnah for His pious and virtuous slaves.”

Rasulullâh Sallallâhu ‘alayhi wasallam always observed, I’tikâf and the Muslims have on the whole adhered to it. It has become a regular feature of the month of Ramadhân and a confirmed practice with the devout and the faithful. Hazrat Ayesha Radiallâhu anha relates that “Rasulullâh. Sallallâhu ‘alayhi wasallam regularly observed I’tikâf during the last ten days of Ramadhân till the end of his life. After him, his wives maintained the tradition.” (Bukhari)

It is related by Hazrat Abû Huraira Radiallâhu anhu that “Rasulullâh Sallallâhu ‘alayhi wasallam observed I’tikâf for ten days every year in the month of Ramadhân. In the year he passed away he observed it for twenty days.” (Bukhari)

MEANING OF I’TIKAF

The reality of I’tikâf is that a person remains in the masjid for a certain period with the intention [niyyah] of I’tikâf. There is no time limit prescribed for whatever time is spent in the masjid with the intention of I’tikâf such spending of time will constitute I’TIKÂF. However, a period of ten days is prescribed for the Masnun I’tikâf of Ramadhân ‑ the Sunnah will not be fulfilled for a period less than ten days. In the case ofI’tikâf Wâjib (that’ is, a person who has taken a vow to perform I’tikâf, it cannot be fulfilled in a period less than one day and one night. (Badai)

WHO MAY PERFORM I’TIKAF

1. It is necessary for I’tikâf that a person be a Muslim and sane. Hence, the I’tikâf of an insane person or a kafir will not be valid. However, just as a minor child may perform Salâh or keep fast, similary such minor may perform I’tikâf. (Badai).

2. A woman may also perform I’tikâf in her home by setting aside a specified place for ibâdah and performing therein such I’tikâf. However, it is necessary for her to obtain her husband’s consent for such I’tikâf. Moreover, it is essential that she is not in a state of menstruation and nifâs.

3. it is a condition of I’tikâf Masnun and I’tikâf wâjib that a person be in a state of fasting. Hence, if a person is not in a state of fasting, he cannot perform these categories of I’tikâf. However, fasting is not a condition in the case of Nafl I’tikâf.

PLACE OF I’TIKAF

For male persons, ‘Itikat can only be performed in the masjid. The most blessed and preferred I’tikâf is that performed at al‑Masjid al Harâm in Makkah. The next most preferred I’tikâf is that performed at al‑Masjid al‑Nabawî in al‑Madinah. Third in order of preferability is al‑Masjid al Aqsa (in Al‑Quds). Fourthly, any Jam’i Masjid. However, it is not necessary to perform I’tikâf at a Jam’i Masjid. On the contrary, I’tikâf may be performed at any masjid where prayers are said five times (each day) in jama’at. If a masjid is such that five time prayers (each day) are not said therein, then in such an event there is a difference of opinion amongst the ‘Ulamâ’. Some scholars are of the view that I’tikâf may be performed at such a masjid, although it is not preferable. (Shâmi)
I’tikâf can be made in a masjid wherein only in Ramadhân 5 daily Salâh are performed (Fatâwa Rahîmîyah vol. 2. p. 30)

TYPES OF I’TIKAF

I’tikâf Masnun ‑ This refers to that I’tikâf which is only performed in the month of Ramadhân during the last ten days thereof commencing on the twenty‑first night and terminating upon the sighting of the the moon of Shawwal (that is, on the eve of ‘Id al‑Fitr) It is termed I’tikâf Masnun because Rasulullâh Sallallâhu ‘alayhi wasallam performed I’tikâf every year in these days.
I’tikâf Nafl ‑ This refers to that ‘Itikaf which may be performed at any time.
I’tikâf Wâjib ‑ This refers to that I’tikâf
(a) which becomes wâjib because of making nadhr, that is, taking a vow, or
(b) which becomes wâjib as Qada’ for rendering void a Masnun I’tikâf.

MEANING AND EFFECT OF MASNUN I’TIKAF

TheI’tikâf which is performed in the last ten days of Ramadhân Mubarak is known as Masnun I’tikâf. The time for this I’tikâf commences upon completion of the twentieth day (of Ramadhân), that is, with effect from the setting of the sun, and remains until the sighting of the Shawwal moon (Eid moon). In view of the fact this I’tikâf commences from the twenty‑first night (of Ramadhân) ‑ and the night commencing from the setting of the sun ‑ it is therefore necessary for the person wishing to performI’tikâf to enter the hudud of the masjid on the twentieth day on such time before Maghrib so that the setting of the sun takes place whilst he is in the masjid.
The I’tikâf of the last ten days of Ramadhân is Sunnah Mu’akkadah Kifayah. This means that if one person, who lives in a particular area in which a masjid is situated, performs I’tikâf, then in such an event the Sunnah is fulfilled on behalf of all the members of that area. However, if nobody in the entire area performs I’tikâf, then all the members of the area will be liable for the sin of failing to fulfil a Sunnah.

RESPONSIBILITY OF MEMBERS OF AN AREA AND MAIN FEATURE OF I’TIKAF

1. It is clear from the foregoing that it is the responsibility of every member of the area or township to ascertain in the beginning whether any person is to sit for the I’tkâf in their masjid or not.

2. However, it is not permissible to cause some person to sit by giving him payment or money because it is not permissible in the case of ‘Ibadah to give or take money or wages. (Shâmi)
If no member of a particular area is able to sit forI’tikâf due to circumstances of necessity, then in that event arrangements must be made to cause some person from another area to sit. (Fatâwa Darul Ulûm Deoband)
The outstanding pillar of I’tikâf is that a person remains for the duration of I’tikâf within the hudûd of the masjid. Save and except for the necessities of nature (see details later), he must not leave the hudud of the masjid even for one moment. For, if he leaves the hudûd of the masjid for one moment without a valid Shar’î reason (the details of which are dealt with later), the I’tikâf is rendered void.

LEAVING THE MASNUN ON THE GROUNDS OF SHAR’Î NECESSITY

By the term Shar’î necessity, we mean those necessities on the basis of which the Sharî‘ah has permitted the person performing I’tikâf to leave the masjid. TheI’tikâf is not rendered void if the person leaves by virtue of such necessities.
These necessities are as follows:
1. The need to urinate or defecate, that is, to attend to the call of nature.
2. The need for Ghusl of janabah when it is not possible to make Ghusl in the masjid.
3. The need to make wudhu when it is not possible to make wudhu while in the masjid.
4. The need to bring food and drink when another person is not available to do so.
5. The need of the Mu’adhin to go out for the purpose of calling Adhân.
6. If Jumuah Salâh is not performed in the masjid wherein I’tikâf is performed, the need to go to another masjid to perform Jumu’ah.
7. The need to move to another masjid in the event of leaking, etc. of the the masjid.
Apart from these needs, it is not permisible for the person performing I’tikâf to leave the masjid for any other purpose. Now, we shall, insha-Allâh, explain details of each of these needs.

CALL OF NATURE

(a) The person performingI’tikâf can leave the rnasjid to attend the call of nature, that is, to urinate of defaecate. In so far as urinating is concerned, he must go to the place nearest the masjid where it is possible to urinate. In regard to defaecation, if a toilet has been built attached to the masjid, and if it is possible to defaecate therein, then he must go there. It is not permissible to go to another place. However, if a person cannot defaecate due to his nature or because of extreme difficulty at any place besides his home, then it is permissible forlim to go to his house for this purpose, even if a toilet is available near the triasjid. (Shâmi)
If a person does not have this difficulty, then he should utilise the toilet of the masjid. If such a person leaves the masjid toilet and goes to his house, then his I’tikâf is rendered void according to some ‘‘Ulamâ. (Shâmi)

(b) If the masjid does not have any toilet, or if it is not possible to attend the call of nature therein, or in the case of extreme difficulty, then in such events it is permissible to go home to attend the call of nature, notwithstanding the distance of such home. (Shâmi)

(c) If the home of a friend or a relative is present near the masjid, it is not necessary to go to his friend’s or relative’s home to attend the call of nature. Despite this, one is permitted to go to one’s home even if it is situated at a distance in comparison to the home of such a friend or a relative. (Shâmi)

(d) If a person owns two houses then he should go to the nearer one to attend the call of nature. If he goes to the further home then his I’tikâf is rendered void according to some ‘ulama. (Alamgiri)

(e) If the toilet is occupied, then it is permissible to wait until it is vacant. But it is not permissible to remain even for one moment once the need is fulfilled. If one remains then, I’tikâf is rendered void. (Barjandi)

(f) It is permissible to make Salâm to someone or to reply to a Salâm or to talk briefly in the house or on the way to the toilet and on return, provided that one does not stop for such brief talk. (Mirqat)

(g) It is not necessary to walk briskly on the way to the toilet or on return. It is permissible also to walk slowly. (Âlamghiri)

(h) On the way to the toilet to attend to the call of nature, one must not stop at the instance of another. One must while walking indicate to such other person that one is in a state of I’tikâf. One can not stop for this purpose. If one stopped for some time at the instance of another, then his I’tikâf is rendered void. This applies to the extent that if a debtor has on the road stopped the person performing I’tikâf then according to Imâm Abû Hanifah Rahmatullâh ‘alayhi the I’tikaf is rendered void. The I’tikâf is not rendered void by virtue of his necessity according to Imâm Abû Yusuf and Imâm Muhammad Rahmatullâh ‘alayhi. Imâm Sarakasi Rahmatullâh ‘alayhi has on the basis of ease and facility manifested a preference for the view point of the latter two. (Mabsut) However, precaution demands that one must not stop on the road under any circumstances.

(i) It is permissible to smoke a cigarette upon leaving to visit the toilet provided that one does not have to stop for this purpose.

(j) If any person who has gone to his house for the purpose of attending to the call of nature, then it is permissible for him to make wudu therein, after attending to the call of nature. (Majma‑ul‑Anhar)

(k) Istinjah is included in the term “attending to call of nature”. Hence, if a person suffers from the disease of urine drops, he can go outside for the purpose only of Istinjah for this reason, the jurists have set forth Istinjah as a separate ground of necessity entitling a person to leave apart from the ground of “attending to the call of nature.” (Shâmi)

(l) While in I’tikâf to be in state of wudhu is Mustahab [desirable] and not wâjib [compulsory]. To read books of Tafsîr and jurisprudence in the state of wudhu is also mustahab. (Fatâwa Mehmoodiya vol. 3 p. 117/2)
(m) While in I’tikâf one can inquire from vistors about those who are absent. (ibid.)

GHUSL

It is permissible for the person performing I’tikaf to leave the masjid for the purpose of Ghusl of Janabah in the event of emission of semen.

This is subject to the explanation that if such a person can make Ghusl whilst remaining in the masjid, for example, by sitting in some big tub and performing Ghusl in a manner that the water does not fall in the masjid then it is not permissible for him to go outside.
However, if this is not possible or there is extreme difficulty then he may go outside for Ghusl of Janabah. (Fath‑ul‑Qadir) If there is a Ghusl Khanah in the masjid, then he must perform Ghusl there. However, if there is no Ghusl Khana in the masjid, or it is not possible to make Ghusl therein for some reason, or if there is extreme hardship, then one can perform Ghusl in one’s home.
Apart from Ghusl of Janabah, it is not permissible to leave the masjid for any other Ghusi. It is not permissible to leave the masjid for the purpose of Jurnu’ah Ghusl or a Ghusl to cool oneself. If one has left the masjid for this purpose then I’tikâf is rendered void. However, if one wishes to make Jumu’ah Ghusl or cool oneself, then he must adopt such a course that the water does not drip into the masjid. For example, he must sit in some tub and bathe himself, or make Ghusl at the corner of the masjid in such a way that the water drips outside the masjid.

EATING

If a person has another available to bring food and water for him to the masjid, then it is not permissible for such a person performing I’tikâf to leave the masjid for the purpose of fetching food. If, however, he does not have available any person to bring food and water, then it is permissible for him to leave the masjid to bring food (al‑Bahr‑ur‑Raiq). However, the food must be brought to the masjid and eaten therein. (Kifayat‑ul‑Mufti)
Such a person moreover must bear in mind that he must leave the masjid at a time when he is able to receive the food. But if he has to wait for some reason to receive the food, there is no objection.

ADHÂN

(a) If a mu’adhin is performing I’tikâf and he has to leave the masjid for the purpose of giving Adhân, then it is permissible for him to go outside. But he must not remain there after giving the Adhân.

(b) If a person is not a mu’adhin but he wishes to give Adhân for a particular time, then it is permissible for him to leave the masjid for the purpose of giving Adhân. (Mabsut)

(c) If the door of the minaret of the masjid is situated within the masjid, then it is absolutely permissible for the person performing I’tikâf to climb the minaret because it will constitute part of the masjid. However, if the door of the masjid is outside the masjid itself, then apart from the need to give Adhân, the person performing ’ltikaf is not permitted to climb such a minaret. (Shâmi)

(d) It is preferable that I’tikâf be made in such a masjid where Jumu’ah Salâh is performed so that it is not necessary to go outside for Jumu’ah. However, if no Jum’ah Salâh is said in a particular masjid and only five times Salâh is said therein, then it is permissible to perform I’tikâf in such a muffid. (Âlamghiri)

(e) In such a situation, it is permissible to go to another masjid to perform Jum’ah Salâh. However, one must leave for this purpose at such a time that, in his estimation, upon reaching the Jam’i Masjid, he will be able to perform the four rakâh sunnah and thereafter, witness immediately the commencement of the khutbah. (ibid.)

(f) If the person performing I’tikâf has gone to a certain masjid to perform Jurn’ah, then he may perform sunnah prayers after completing the fard in that masjid. However, he cannot remain (in the masjid) thereafter. (Ibid). If he remains for a period exceeding necessity then his I’tikâf is not rendered void because he has remained in a masjid. (Badai)

(g) If a person goes to a Jam’i Masjid to perform Jum’ah and thereafter remains there and completes the remaining period of I’tikâf, then his I’tikâf will remain valid. This act is, however, makrûh. (Âlamgiri)
One can make I’tikâf in one masjid and lead tarawîh in another provided when sitting for I’tikâf this intention was made. (Âlamqiri vol. 1, p. 199)

TRANSFER OF MASJID
It is necessary for every person performing I’tikâf to complete his I’tikâf in the masjid where he commenced it. However, if he is faced with such an extreme difficulty and hardship that it is not possible for him to complete the I’tikâf in such a masjid, for example, because such a masjid may collapse, or he is removed therefrom under compulsion, or there is a strong danger to life or property by staying there (in the masjid), then it is permissible to move to another masjid and complete the I’tikâf there. If one has left for this purpose, the ’ltikaf will not be rendered void, provided that upon leaving one does not wait or remain on the road but proceeds directly to the other masjid. (Âlamgiri)

JANAZAH SALÂH AND VISITING THE SICK
(a) Generally it is not permissible for the person performing I’tikâf to leave the masjid to participate in Janazah Salâh or to visit the sick. However, if one left to attend the call of nature, and incidentally, on the road enquired of some person’s health or participated in a Janazah Salâh, then theI’tikâf is not rendered void. (Badai)
Moreover, one can visit or enquire of the sick whilst one is walking on. Consequently, Hadrat ’Aishah (R.A.) has said that the Rasululla Sallallâhu ‘alayhi wasallam enquired of the sick whilst walking on, and he did not change his way for the purpose. (Abû Dawûd). In regard to Janazah Salâh it is a condition that one does not stop at all after the Salâh itself. (Mirqat).
(b) Apart from this, if a person makes a condition at the time of the intention of the I’tikâf itself to the effect that if he wishes during the course of the I’tikâf to visit a certain sick person, or participate in Janazah Salâh, or attend a certain Islâmic or religious gathering, he will do so, then in such a situation it is permissible to leave the masjid for these purposes, and his I’tikâf will not thereby be rendered void. However, in this manner, his I’tikâf will become a nafl one, and will not remain Masnun.

FACTORS THAT RENDER I’TIKÂF VOID
I’tikâf is rendered void by the following factors:
1. Apart from the necessities mentioned above, I’tikâf is rendered void if the person performing I’tikâf leaves the hudud of the masjid for any other purpose although such leaving is for one moment (Hidâyah). It is clear that one will be said to have left the masjid when the feet (of the person performing I’tikâf) have been put outside in such a manner that according to custom one will be said to have left the masjid. Hence, if only the head is outside the masjid, then I’tikâf shall not thereby be rendered void. (Al‑Bahr‑ur‑Raiq).

2. Similarly, if a person performing I’tikâf leaves for a valid Shar’î necessity, but after completing such a necessity, he waits or stays outside (the masjid) even for one moment, then theI’tikâf is thereby rendered void. (Shâmi)

3. If one leaves the masjid without a valid Shar’î reason or need, whether intentionally, in forgetfulness or by mistake, then in such situations the I’tikâf is rendered void. However, one will not sin for rendering the I’tikâf void if the leaving is due to mistake or forgetfulness. (ibid.)

4. The I’tikâf will also be rendered void if a person under mistaken belief enters a part of the area of the masjid thinking that it falls within the hudud of the masjid, whereas in fact it is excluded there from. Hence, one must properly ascertain the hudud of the masjid before commencing I’tikâf.

5. Since fasting is a condition for I’tikâf, if the fast breaks then I’tikâf is rendered void accordingly, irrespective whether such fast was broken for a valid reason or not, or intentionally or by mistake. In each of these cases, I’tikâf is rendered void. The meaning of breaking fast by mistake is that a person whilst remembering that he is fasting does some involuntary act which is opposed to the requirement of fasting; for example, the person continued eating until the rise of dawn, or made Iftar before the setting of the sun under the mistaken belief taht the time for Iftar had passed; or whilst gargling water entered the gullet by mistake althought the person remembered that he was fasting. In all these situations, the fast is broken and I’tikâf is correspondingly rendered void.
However, if a person forgot that he was fasting and in such state of forgetfulness ate, and drank something, then both his fast and I’tikâf are not rendered void. (Shâmi)

6. I’tikâf is also rendered void by sexual intercourse whether done intentionally or by mistake, and whether done during the day or night, inside the masjid or outside, and whether emission results or not. In all these situations, I’tikâf is rendered void.

7. Kissing and cuddling is not permissible during the course of I’tikâf if this causes emission, then I’tikâf is rendered void. However, if no emision results then notwithstanding its illegality, the ’ltikaf is not rendered void. (Hidâyah)

SITUATIONS IN WHICH IT IS PERMISSIBLE TO BREAK I’TIKÂF
It is permissible to break I’tikâf in the following situations:

1. If such a disease emerges during the course of I’tikâf which is not possible to cure except by leaving the masjid, then it is permissible to break the I’tikâf.

2. It is permissible to break I’tikâf and go outside (the masjid) in order to save a person who is drowning or burning or to prevent a fire. (Shâmi)

3. It is permissible to break I’tikâf because of extreme disease which has afflicted one’s parents, wife or children.

4. It is permissible to break I’tikâf if one is compelled to go outside (the masjid), for example, if a warrant of arrest is issued by the government.

5. If a janazah arrives and there is nobody else to perform the Janazah Salâh, then also it is permissible to break the I’tikâf. (Fath‑ul‑Qadir)

THE CONSEQUENCES OF BREAKING I’TIKÂF: RULES OF QADHA

1. If the I’tikâf Masnûn is rendered void for any of the reasons set forth above, then it is wâjib to make qadah only of that day in which the ’ltikaf’ was rendered void. It is not wâjib to make qadah of the full ten days. (Shâmi). The procedure of making qadha of this one day is as follows:

If there is time remaining in that Ramadhân, then one must perform I’tikâf with the niyâh of qadha in that Ramadhân commencing from the setting of the sun of one day until the setting of the sun of the following day. If there is not time in that particular Ramadhân or if it is not possible for any reason to perform I’tikâf therein, then apart from Ramadhân, one can keep fast on any day and perform I’tikâf for one day. On the other hand, if one makes qadah the following Ramadhân this also will be valid. However, there is no guarantee of life and accordingly one must make qadah as quickly as possible.

2. If the I’tikaf Masnun is rendered void, it is not necessary to leave the masjid. But one can continue the I’tikâf for the remainder of the last ten days with niyyah of nafl. In this way, the sunnah al‑Mu’akkadah will not be fulfilled but thawab will be obtained for the nafl I’tikaf. On the other hand, if the I’tikâf was rendered void due to some involuntary mistake, then it is not inconceivable that Allâh Ta’âla may bestow in His infinite mercy the reward of the Masnun I’tikâf of the last ten days. Hence, it is preferable in the case of the breaking of the I’tikâf is broken and to commence a permissible to leave on the day that I’tikaf is broken and to commence a nafl I’tikâf with nafl niyyah the following day.

THE ADAB OF I’TIKAF
In view of the fact that the purpose of I’tikâf it to withdraw oneself from worldly affairs and devote oneself entirely to the remembrance of Allâh, therefore, one must during the course ofI’tikâf avoid unnecessary talk and work. Whatever time one finds, one must spend in performing qadha salâh, nawafil (Salâh), tilawah al‑Qur’ân, and other ‘ibâdah, dhikr and tasbihat. Moreover, the learning and teaching of ‘ilm of dîn, lectures and nasiliat and study of Islâmic books is not only permissible but also a cause of obtaining thawab.

PERMISSIBLE ACTS [MUBAHAT] IN I’TIKAF
The following acts are permissible in the state of I’tikâf

1. Eating and drinking.

2. Necessary transactions of purchase and sale relating to the necessities of life. However, it is not permissible to make the masjid a centre of trade as such. (Qazi Khan)

3. Sleeping.

4. Haircut provided the hair does not fall in the masjid.

5. Talking and conversation, but it is necessary to avoid unnecessary talk. (Shâmi)

6. To contract a Nikâh or other transactions. (al‑Bahr)

7. To change clothes, apply scent and oil. (Kulasatul Fatâwa)

8. To assist a sick person in the masjid, apply bandage or show him a medicine. (Fatâwa Darul Uloom)

9. To give lessons on the Qur’an or ’ilm of Din. (Shâmi)

10. To wash and sew clothes provided that when washing the person remains within the masjid and the water falls outside the masjid. This ruling also applies in the case of washing pots or utensils.

11. To pass wind in the masjid at the time of necessity. (Shâmi)
Moreover, all those actions are permissible in I’tikâf which are not makrûh or render I’tikâf void, and which actions in themselves are halâl.

MAKRUHAT OF I’TIKÂF
The following matters are makrûh in the state of I’tikâf:

1. To adopt complete silence because the adoption of complete silence in the Sharî’ah does not constitute I’tikâf. If one adopts silence with the intention that such silence is I’tikâf, then he will receive the sin of bid’ah. However, there is no objection if one does not regard silence as ibâdah and endeavours to remain silent in order to avoid sin. However, whenever a necessity arises, one must not avoid or abstain from talk. (Durre‑Mukhtâr)

2. To indulge in unnecessary and vain talk; some conversation is permissible in accordance with necessity, but it is obligatory to avoid making the masjid a place of vanities and unnecessary talk. (Minhatul Kaliq)

3. To bring goods of trade and throw them in the masjid.

4. To enclose such area of the masjid for the purpose of I’tikâf that other persons performing I’tikâf or Salâh are caused difficulty or hardship.

5. To charge a fee for writing, or sewing clothes, or teaching on the part of the person performing I’tikâf has been considered as makrûh by the jurists (Al‑Bahr). However, if a person cannot earn to provide for himself for the fasts of the days of I’tikâf without charging such fee, then it is permissible for him to do so on the analogy of sale. (And Allâh knows best).

6. While performing the sunnah to indulge in a makrûh is not correct.

I’TIKÂF MANDHUR
The second type of I’tikâf is I’tikâf Mandhur”, that is, that I’tikâf which a person has made obligatory upon himself by taking a vow [nadhr].
Having regard to the fact that this particular form of I’tikâf is rare in occurrence, only the necessary rules have been set out below. For details, one should refer to the books or jurisprudence or a Mufti.

CATEGORIES OF NADHR AND THEIR LEGAL EFFECT
There are two categories of Nadhr:
(i) Nadlir Mu’ayyan, and
(ii) Nadhr Ghayr Mu’ayyan.
(i) Nadbr Muayyan: this means that the Niyyah of I’tikâf is made for specific day or days or month; for example, a person makes Nadhr that he will perform I’tikâf in the last ten days of Sha’ban. However, if for some reason he cannot keep fasts in these days, then he must make qadah in other days. (Shâmi)
(ii) Nadhr Ghayr Muayyan: this means that no specific month or day is fixed for the performance of I’tikâf; for example, a person makes Nadhr that he will perform I’tikâf for three days. Hence, it will be permissible for him to performI’tikâf in all those days in which it is valid to keep fasts, and accordingly, his Nadhr will be fulfilled if he performs I’tikâf in such days.

NAFL I’TIKAF

1. The third type ofI’tikâf is Nafl I'tikâf. This form of I’tikâf is not subject to time, fasting, day, night ‑ on the contrary, g person will receive the reward of I’tikâf if he enters the masjid with the intention of I’tikâf at any time and for whatever period.

2. In the last ten days of Ramadhân, if a person performs I’tikâf with the requisite intention for less than ten days, then such I’tikâf will be Nafl I’tikâf.

3. If a person goes to the masjid for the purpose of Salâh and at the time of entering (the masjid) formulates an intention to the effect that he will remain in I’tikâf for whatever time he spends in he masjid, then such person will receive the reward of I’tikâf.

4. Nafl I’tikâf remains in force for the period that the person is in the masjid. Upon leaving or emerging from the masjid, this I’tikâf ends.

5. The person performing Nafl I’tikaf should complete I’tikâf for the period or days that he intended to undergo in I’tikâf.

6. However, if he leaves the masjid for some reason prior to completion of the intended period, then he will receive reward for the period he remained in the masjid. For the remaining (that is, uncompleted) period, he is not obliged (that is, it is not wâjib upon him) to make qadah. (Shâmi).

7. If a person, for example, made intention to perform I’tikâf for three days and thereafter upon entering the masjid, he commits an act which breaks his I’tikâf, then in such event his I’tikâf is completed, that is, he will receive the reward for the period he spent in the masjid prior to breaking of his I’tikâf, and furthermore, no qada’ is wâjib upon him (for the uncompleted period). In this event, he may leave the masjid if he wishes, or remain therein by making a new intention of I’tikâf. In such a situation, it is preferable that he completes the period for which he had made the intention of I’tikâf.

I’TIKÂF OF WOMEN

1. The fadilah of I’tikâf is not confined to men; women also can take advantage of it. However, women should not perform I’tikâf in the masjid. Their I’tikâf is only possible in the house. The procedure is as follows:
Women should sit for I’tikâf in that place in the house which has been set aside for Salâh and ‘Ibadah. If no such place has been previously set aside, then a place must be so set aside prior to the commencement of I’tikâf, and I’tikâf must accordingly be performed therein. (Shâmi)

2. If no specific place has been built or set aside in the house for Salâh, and it is not possible for some reason to so build or set aside a place therein, then in such event a woman may at her discretion demarcate any place within the house and perform I’tikâf there. (Âlamghiri)

3. It is necessary for a married woman to obtain the consent of her husband for the purpose of performing I’tikâf. It is not permissible for a woman to perform I’tikâf without the permission of her husband. (Shâmi) However, husbands should not without reason deprive their wives of performing I’tikâf by refusing consent. On the contrary, they should grant consent.

4. If a woman has commenced I’tikâf with the permission of her husband and thereafter he endeavours to prohibit or prevent her from completing same, then he cannot do so. If he succeeds in preventing her, then the woman is not obliged to complete I’tikâf. (Alamghiri)

5. It is necessary for a woman to be free from menstruation and Nifâs in order to perform I’tikâf ‑ that is, she cannot perform I’tikâf in a stage of menstruation and Nifâs.

6. Consequently, a woman should, prior to the commencement of Masnun I’tikâf, determine whether the date of her menstruation will coincide with the period of I’tikâf. If the menstruation is expected to occur towards the end of the last ten days of Ramadhân, then she must not perform Masnun I’tikâf. However, she may perform Nafl I’tikâf for the period until the arrival of her menstruation.

7. If a woman has commenced I’tikâf, and thereafter menstruation commences during the duration of I’tikâf, then it is wâjib upon her to immediately abandon I’tikâf, as soon as her menstruation commences. In such a situation it is wâjib upon her to make qada I’tikâf of only the day in which she abandoned the I’tikâf (as a result of the intervention of menstruation). The procedure of such qadah is as follows:

After the woman becomes pure of such menstruation, she keeps fast on any day and performs I’tikâf. If the days remain in Ramadhân, then she may make qadha in Ramadhân in which case the fast of Ramadhân will be sufficient. However, if Ramadhân has terminated at the time of her becoming pure from such menstruation, then she must thereafter specifically keep fast qadha I’tikâf for one day. (Commentary to Behesti Zewar)

8. The place within the home demarcated by a woman for the purpose of I’tikâf will for the duration thereof fall within the hukm of the masjid. It is not permissible for her to move from such place without a Shar’î necessity. She cannot leave such place and enter any other portion or area of the home. If she does so, her I’tikâf will break.

9. The rules applicable to men relating to moving from the place of I’tikâf are also applicable to women. For those needs and necessities in relation to which it is permissible for men to leave the masjid, it is similarly permissible for women to leave the place of I’tikâf for such needs and necessities. (not Janazah). For those works in relation to which it is permissible for men to leave the masjid, it is similarly permissible for women to leave the place of I’tikâf for such works. Accordingly, women should, prior to commencing I’tikâf, thoroughly acquaint themselves with the rules relating to I’tikâf Masnun which have been discussed earlier under the heading “I’tikâf Masnun”.

10. During the I’tikâf, women may, whilst sitting in their place of I’tikâf indulge in sewing and knitting. They can advise and guide others in regard to matters affecting the home. However, they cannot leave the place demarcated for I’tikâf. Moreover, it is preferable if they concentrate during the I’tikâf on Dhikr, Tasbihat, Tilawat al‑Qur’an and ‘Ibadat. They should not spend too much time on other matters.

Source: Kitaabus Saum - Mufti Afzal Elias

Reflections on Ramadan and EID



Around the world, the Muslim community has completed Ramadan, the month of fasting. Ramadan, the ninth month in the Islamic calendar, is terminated with the ceremony of Eid, a day of thanksgiving and rejoicing. The word "Ramadan" comes from the Arabic root word denoting “scorching heat” and "sun-baked ground". Symbolically, Ramadan provides “spiritual heat” with great therapeutic effect, which is soaked up slowly over the whole month by the soul and heart of the fasting person, just as stones soak up the sun's heat.


Heat therapy is increasingly being applied as a medical treatment to remove toxins, cold and other harmful conditions from the body. In a similar manner, the spiritual heat of Ramadan expunges and “dries out” greed, arrogance, lethargy, indifference and other spiritual deficiencies from the soul of man. Viewed from another angle, heat is vital to all manufacturing processes. Metals, plastic, glass, wood, etc. are all moulded into various beneficial products under scorching temperatures. Similarly, figuratively speaking, the heart of man is cast into a beautiful spiritual mould in the heat of the crucible of Ramadan, thereby becoming a wonderful receptacle of good values and noble ideals.

Long term benefits of fasting
Fasting throughout the month of Ramadan, the third of Islam’s five pillars, is compulsory for Muslims. Fasting is not a mindless exercise of torturing the body by remaining hungry and thirsty, but is extremely meaningful and produces great long term benefits for the fasting person. As a whole, people indulge excessively in food, snacking and nibbling the whole day, thereby heading towards weight gain, obesity and health problems. The intake of drinks such is coffee, tea and fizzy or carbonated drinks is also excessive. When one is fasting, strong discipline is exercised and despite mouth-watering food and delicious drinks being readily obtainable, the fasting person cannot even taste these.



Besides regulating the intake of food, some of the benefits of fasting in Ramadan are tabulated as follows:
• Increase in prayers and devotional practices in Ramadan generate a feeling of spiritual awakening, greater God-consciousness and a sense of closeness to the Almighty Lord
• Fasting, which entails abstention from food and drink for the whole day, creates a greater appreciation for the bounty of food and drinks which are easily taken for granted
• Strong self-discipline and control is developed - a direct effect of fasting – which is essential for achieving any of life’s worthy goals and ambitions
• Fasting requires patience – a sublime virtue - which in turn contributes towards the development of tolerance, contentment and good conduct
• Ramadan causes a change in life’s routine, which enforces healthier habits - particularly with regard to diet and consumption, sleeping routine and giving up bad habits, such as smoking
• Because fasting is a collective activity, it creates a universal sense of belonging and cohesion which is vital for social stability and emotional well being

Sympathy for the poor and underprivileged
One of the great benefits of fasting is that a person experiences hunger and thirst first hand, thereby personally identifying with the plight of the hungry and poor. This in turn generates a real and intense degree of sympathy and concern for the poor and needy, who have so little to live on each day. Ramadan is truly a month of charity and sharing with the poor and underprivileged. Fasting galzanises and mobilises people into programs and campaigns of poverty eradication. One who does not from time to time experience hunger and thirst, cannot truly experience what the poor and hungry feel.

Ramadan as an ideal lifestyle altering program
It is significant to note that lifestyle change and inculcation of a new routine only comes about with a sustained program carried out steadfastly and with discipline over a period of time. Change in routine and habit is usually achieved over the duration of a month at least. This brings about the desirable change in routine that is otherwise difficult to achieve. Ramadan – a month long intensive program - provides exactly this opportunity for lifestyle change. Then when the momentum begins to slacken over the year, along comes the next Ramadan to put things back on track, and so the cycle continues year after year. In this way, the benefits of this month, as elucidated above, are retained for most of the year. When the “batteries” begin to weaken and loose charge, again comes the next Ramadan to give a full charge!

The completion of the holy month, is followed by a day of celebration and rejoicing, referred to as the Day of Eid. This is a day of indulgence in good food, fine dress and great socialising with family and friends, but again with much emphasis on sharing with the poor and needy. Muslims who own wealth just above their own basic needs are required to contribute a small but compulsory charity, called “Fitra”, towards the poor before or on the arrival of Eid day, so that they may also participate in the joys and celebrations of Eid, thus reinforcing the concept of social cohesion and brotherhood.

In a sense, the Day of Eid is a huge “graduation” ceremony for the Muslim community who have just successfully completed a grueling month’s workshop in discipline-building and character development, which is the most essential and basic requirement for a successful, fulfilling and prosperous life.

I take this opportunity to wish one and all a joyous and happy Eid. Eid Mubarak!

(Mufti Zubair Bayat is a Durban-based Islamic scholar and the Director of Darul Ihsan Islamic Services Centre)

(article for MERCURY newspaper p.12 on Friday, 10 September 2010)

Requirements of salaah


Fard Parts in the Prayer

There are fourteen things called the Fard (imperative) parts which have to be fulfilled for the Prayer to be valid and proper. Seven of these are prerequisites which must be fulfilled before the commencement of the Prayer. The other seven, called the pillars of the Prayer, have to be observed during the Prayer.

PREREQUISITES

If any of the following seven prerequisites is ignored, the Prayer will not be deemed to have been performed at all :

1. Cleanliness of Body
The body has to be cleaned of all sorts of impurities, whether these are impurities in effect or impurities in fact, and one must have obtained purity either through Wudu or, if need be, through Ghusl.

2. Cleanliness of Garments
All the garments including even the cap, socks, gloves, etc., that one is wearing or having on one's body must be clean and pure beyond any shadow of a doubt.

3. Cleanliness of Place
The minimum requirement is that the place where one intends to stand and where one's knees, hands and forehead would rest in Sajdah, must be clean, whether it is a piece of plain ground or floor, or a mat, etc., bat one should also avoid standing for the Prayer at a place which is stinking with filth and dirt around it.

4. Covering of Satar
For males it is the part of the body between the navel and the knee, and for females it is the whole body excluding the face, hands and feet. Women should see that the ankles do not remain uncovered.

5. Ascertaining the right time for a Prayer
Each Prayer has to be performed within the time limit prescribed for it. If a Prayer is performed before its time, it will be no Prayer at all, and if it is offered after the time for it has elapsed, it will have to be offered as a missed (Qada) Prayer.

6. Facing the Qibla
If a person performs his Prayer with his face turned towards a direction other than that of the Qibla, unless there is a genuine reason for that, his Prayer will not be deemed to have been performed.

7. Intention
Having the intention in the mind, which may also be expressed with the tongue, to offer a particular Fard Prayer at a prescribed time, or a particular missed Prayer afterwards. For the Sunnat or Nafl Prayers, however, the mention of the time is not necessary. If one is going to offer a Prayer under the leadership of an Imam, one has to express intention to that effect, too.

PILLARS OF PRAYER

These are the pillars or principles which have to observed during the Prayer :

1. Takbir Tahrimah
To begin the Prayer with (Allahu Akbar), (Allahu A'zam) or (Allahu A'la) etc., expressing the greatness and glory of Allah. This is called Takbir Tahrimah because after one has pronounced it, one is forbidden to move about, talk or drink, etc.

2. Qiyam
To stand upright in a Fard or Wajib Prayer at least for so long that one may complete recitation of that much [of a] portion of the Qur'an, which one has to recite as an imperative duty. In the Nafl Prayer, however, Qiyam is not necessary.

3. Qira'at
To recite by heart one verse of the Qur'an, consisting of at least two words, like (Allah-us-Samad). According to Imam Muhammad and Abu Yusuf, one should make it a habit to recite more of the Qur'an, for instance, three short verses or one long verse, though according to Imam Abu Hanifah, one short verse containing at least two words will suffice for the purpose.

Qira'at is obligatory in any two of the rak'ahs of the Fard Prayer, e.g., in the first and second, second and third, third and fourth, or the first and last, but in the Wajib Sunnat, or Nafl Prayer, Qira'at has to be done in all the rak'ahs.

3. Ruku
To bend down to the extent that the hands reach the knees is obligatory once in each rak'ah.

4. Sajdah
To prostrate oneself twice in every rak'ah.

5. Qa'dah Akhirah
To sit in the prescribed way at the end of the last rak'ah of the Prayer for so long that one may complete recitation of Tashahhud.

6. Salam.
To end the prayer with a voluntary action or words not included in the Prayer after one has performed the full Prayer and brought it to completion.

Wajib Parts in the Prayer

These are those essential parts which have to be carried out during the Prayer, and if one of these is missed due to forgetfulness, one has to perform Sajdah Sahv to rectify the mistake. If Sajdah Sahv is not performed, or an essential part if ignored deliberately, the Prayer will be rendered void and will have to be repeated. The essential parts are:

1. To recite a portion of the Qur'an in the first two rak'ahs of the Fard Prayer.

2. To recite Al-fatihah in the first two rak'ahs of the Fard Prayer and in all the rak'ahs of the other Prayers.

3. To recite another Surah or passage containing one long verse or three short verses after Al-Fatihah in the first two rak'ats of the Fard Prayer and in all the rak'ahs of the other Prayers.

4. To recite Al-Fatihah before the other Surah or passage.

5. To observe the sequence in recitation, Ruku, Sajdah and the rak'ahs.

6. To observe Qaumah, i.e. to stand upright after Ruku.

7. To observe Jalsah, i.e. to sit upright between the two Sajdahs.

8. To perform Ruku, and Sajdahs peacefully and with perfect tranquillity.

9. To observe Qa'dah Ula, first sitting for Tashahhud after two rak'ahs in the Prayer consisting of three or four rak'ahs.

10. To recite Tashahhud at least once in the two Qa'dahs.

11. To recite Al-Fatihah and an additional passage (for the lmam) aloud in the two Fard rak'ahs of the Fajr and Jumu'a Prayers and in the first two Fard rak'ahs of the Maghrib and Isha Prayers, and in the 'Id and Taravih Prayers, and to recite it inaudibly in the last rak'ahs of Zuhr, 'Asr, Maghrib and 'Isha' Prayers.
12. To bring the Prayer to completion with salutation: (As-Salamu 'alaikum wa rahmatullah).

13. To raise hands with Takblr for the Qunut and to recite the Qunut in the last rak'ah of the Witr Prayer.

14. To pronounce the additional Takbirs in the 'Id Prayers.

Sunnat Parts in the Prayer

The Holy Prophet observed certain other things in his Prayer besides the Fard and Wajib parts, which though not equal to Fard or Wajib in status, deserve to be observed by Muslims to make their Prayers as much like the Holy Prophet's as possible. If a Sunnat part is missed or ignored, it does not entail Sajdah Sahv, nor does it render the Prayer void. These are 21 in number and are as follows :

1. To raise the hands before Takbir Tahrimah to ear-lobes for males, and to shoulder level for females, though the males may also raise them only to shoulder level in case of a genuine reason.

2. To keep the fingers apart and straight in the natural state at the time of Takbir Tahrimah and to turn the palms towards the Qiblah.

3. To keep the head erect while pronouncing Takbir Tahrimah.

4. To place the hands after Takbir Tahrimah under the navel or on the breast for females.The prescribed way is that the palm of the right hand should be placed over the back of the left hand and the wrist of the left hand should be gripped with the thumb and little finger of the right hand and the three middle fingers spread on the wrist of the left hand, though for the females it is not necessary to grip the left wrist with the thumb and the little finger of the right hand.

5. The Imam has to pronounce all the Takbirs aloud beginning from Takbir Tahrimah for moving from one article of the Prayer to the other.

6. To recite Thana

(Subhanak-Allahumma wa bi-hamdika wa tabarak-asmuka wa ta'ala jadduka wa la-ilaha ghairuk)

7. To pronounce Ta'awwuz:

(A'uzu billahi min-ash-shaitan-ir-rajim)

8. To recite Bismillah before Al-Fatihah in every rak'ah.

9. To recite only Al-Fatihah in the third and fourth rak'ahs of the Fard Prayer.

10. To pronounce Aamin behind the Imam as well as the individual Prayer after finishing Al-Fatihah.

11. To pronounce Thana, Ta'awwuz, Bismillah and Aamin inaudibly.

12. To perform recitation to the extent as prescribed for various Prayers.

13. To pronounce Tasbih (Subhana Rabbi-yal-'Azim) in Ruku and (Subhana Rabbi-yal-A'ala) in Sajdah at least thrice.

14. To keep the head and the back level and aligned in Ruku and to grip the knees with the hands

15. The lmam has to pronounce (Sami-Allahu-li-man hamidah) during Qaumah and the followers (Rabba-na la-kal-Hamd). The person offering the Prayer independently has to pronounce both.

16. To place the knees first on the ground while going down for Sajdah, then the two hands, then the nose and last of all the forehead.

17. To sit on the left foot placed flat on the ground during Jalsah and Qa'dah and to keep the right foot upright in a manner that the tips of the toes are turned towards the Qiblah, and to place the open hands naturally on the thighs.

18. To raise the forefinger of the right hand while pronouncing La Ilaha in Tashahhud.

19. To recite salat in the final Qa'dah after Tashahhud.

20. To recite any of the prescribed supplications after salat.

21. To turn the face first to the right with salutation (As-Salamu 'Alaikum wa rahmat-ullah) and then to the left, over the shoulders.

Mustahabb Parts in the Prayer

These are five in number. They merit reward if observed, but there is no harm if ignored :

1. To take the hands out of the over garment (sheet, blanket, etc.) and raise them to the ears while pronouncing Takbir Tahrimah ; the women, however, should raise the hands from under the over garment to shoulder level.

2. To look during Qiyam at the place where the head would rest in Sajdah, between the two feet during ruku', at the thighs during Qa'dah and at the shoulders in salutation.

3. To pronounce Tasbih more than thrice in Ruku' and Sajdah when praying individually.

4. To avoid coughing as far as possible.

5. To try to keep the mouth closed while yawning, but if unavoidable, to cover the mouth with the right hand during Qiyam and with the back of the left hand in other postures.

THlNGS WHICH RENDER THE PRAYER VOID

These are 18 in number. One must guard one's Prayer against these, and if any of them occurs, the Prayer becomes void and has to be observed afresh:

1. To talk in the Prayer, whether little or much. This may happen in one of the following five ways :

First Case

To talk to another person, or respond to him, whether in one's own language or in Arabic, or in the words of the Qur'an. Instances of responding in the words of the Qur'an are as follows:

(i) To say to a person named Yahya(Ya Yahya Khuz il-Kitab) "O Yahya! Hold your book."

(ii) Or to say to a woman, named Maryam: ' (Ya Maryam-uqnuit li Rabbi-ki wasjudi) "O Mary! carry out the will of Thy Lord, prostrate yourself before Him and bend down in worship with those who bend down."

(iii) Or to ask somebody : (Fa aina tazhabun) "So, where are you going?"

(iv) Or to tell somebody (Iqra'a Kitabak) "Read your book."

(v) Or to express sorrow and sympathy with somebody, saying, (Inna lillahi wa inna ilaihi raji'un) "To Allah we belong and to Him we shall return."

(vi) Or to respond to somebody's sneezing with (Yar hamu-Kallah) "May Allah have mercy on you ."

(vii) Or to express wonder, saying (Subhan-Allah) "Glory be to Allah!"

(viii) Or to express joy at good news, saying (Alhamdu Lillah) "All praise is only due to Allah."

(ix) Or to forbid somebody to do something indecent, saying (Allahu Yahdika) "May Allah guide you to do right."

(x) Or to greet somebody or respond to his greeting.

(xi) Or to respond with Aamin to somebody's invocation outside the Prayer.

(xii) Or to respond with (Jalla Jalaluhu) on hearing Allah's name being mentioned.

(xiii) Or to recite salat on hearing the Holy Prophet's name being mentioned.

(xiv) Or a woman's crying Bismillah on seeing a child fall down etc.

Second Case

To utter a cry with a view to driving away an animal, like a cat or hen, from one's food, drink, etc.

Third Case

To utter an extraneous word or words in one's own language or in Arabic, unless, however, the word or words uttered belong to the Quranic text ; but if the word or words uttered are [of] a person's verbal 'mannerism or habitual sort of utterance, the Prayer will be rendered void even if they belong to the Quranic text.

Fourth Case

To invoke Allah or remember Him, whether in Arabic or in one's own language, unless a prescribed invocation, given in the Qur'an or Hadith, is made inadvertently at a time where it is not meant to be made, but this is not to be made a matter of habit. A prayer expressed to human beings for fulfilment, whether in Arabic or in one's own language, also renders the Prayer void.

Fifth Case

1. To correct a mistake of recitation of another person, whether the other person is reciting the Qur'an in the Prayer or outside it, unless, however, the one committing the mistake of recitation is an Imam and the one correcting him a follower, but if the follower corrects the Imam after looking up the correction in the Qur'an, or after hearing it being correctly recited by another person, his own Prayer will be rendered void, and if the Imam accepts his correction, the Imam's Prayer as well will be rendered void.

2. To recite the Qur'an from the Book instead of from memory.

3. Breaking down of any of the prerequisites or conditions of the Prayer, e.g. losing the state of purity, breaking of Wudu or standing in need of Ghusl; issuing of the menses; or the garments becoming impure or the place of worship; or turning away of the face from the direction of the Qiblah, without a genuine reason; or exposition of sat'ar for so long that one may be able to perform Ruku or Sajdah in the meantime; or losing one's consciousness; or falling into a fit of madness or hysteria; or becoming intoxicated on any account, etc.

4. To ignore or miss one of the Fard parts of the Prayer, intentionally or unintentionally, e.g., forgetting to stand in Qiyam, or perform Ruku or Sajdah; or recite a portion of the Qur'an, etc.

5. To ignore or miss one or more of the Wajib parts of the Prayer deliberately.

6. To ignore or miss one or more of the Wajib parts of the Prayer unintentionally, and failing to perform Sajdah Sahv.

7. To cough unnecessarily without a genuine cause, unless, however, coughing is unavoidable on account of an ailment; or somebody has to cough to clear the throat; or a follower has to warn the Imam of a mistake; or one has to cough to indicate that one is engaged in Prayer, etc.

8. To moan or cry unnecessarily on account of a loss, or suffering or intense pain, etc., unless, it occurs involuntarily due to the fear of Allah, or the fear of the torment of the grave or Hell in the Hereafter or somebody begins to cry under the effect and influence of the Qur'an, etc.

9. To chew or eat something, even if unintentionally, unless somebody swallows a particle of food, less than a grain of gram in size, stuck between the teeth, but even this is not allowed to be done on purpose. One should clean one's mouth thoroughly before standing up for the Prayer.

10. To commit a blunder in the recitation of the Qur'an so as to effect a change in the meaning, e.g., prolonging the sound of 'A' in Allah in Takbir, which renders it to mean: "Is Allah great?"

11. Breaking into laughter by an adult person.

12. To try to read or write somewhere in the front, unless, however, the words are not uttered with the tongue, but only their meaning is perceived.

13. To move about or shift unnecessarily.

14. To repeat an act irrelevant to the Prayer over and over again ; for instance, to set the clothing right, or twist the hair into a plait, or to suckle a baby, etc.

15. Standing of a man and a woman side by side for the Prayer, without a curtain between them, for so long that one may bo able to perform a Ruku, or a Sajdah, in the meantime, unless it is a minor girl towards whom one cannot feel sexually inclined and attracted.

UNDESIRABLE THINGS DURING THE PRAYER

These are the things which do not render the Prayer void, yet make it defective and unsound. These are 28 in number, and one must avoid them scrupulously to make one's prayer worthy of due merit and excellence.

1. Wearing clothes against the established custom and practice. For instance, leaving the wrapper of the over garment hanging from the head on the sides instead of covering the shoulders, etc. with it, or putting the shirt or coat over the shoulders without inserting the arms into the sleeves, etc.

2. Trying to fold the garments to protect them from dust, or shaking off dust from the hands, or blowing off dust or removing pebbles, etc. from the place of Sajdah.

3. Playing with the garments, hair of the beard or head, teeth, or putting the finger into the mouth, or tapping the wrist with fingers during Qiyam, or scratching the body unnecessarily.

4. Offering the Prayer in an undignified dress in which one would not like to come out in the open or sit in a gathering or meeting, for instance, putting on a child's cap or an ordinary straw cap kept in the mosque.

5. Performing the Prayer bare-headed or in an improper dress in the mosque on account of sheer negligence : however, if a person prays bare-headed at home out of humility, there is no harm.

6. Standing up for the Prayer when one is feeling a strong desire for passing stool or urinating or releasing wind.

7. Praying with one's (male's) hair tied up in a knot.

8. Snapping the fingers or intertwining the fingers of one hand with those of the other.

9. Placing one's hands on the hip or back.

10. Turning the face away from the direction of the Qiblah or casting side glances, unless unavoidable and necessary.

11. Resting the forearms up to the elbows on the ground during Sajdah.

12. Turning one's face during the Prayer towards a person who is facing the one praying.

13. Standing of the Imam wholly inside the niche ; if however, he keeps his feet outside the niche and prostrates himself inside it, there is no harm.

14. Yawning deliberately and failing to control it if one could.

15. Praying in garments or on a mat having pictures of animals on them, or in a place where there are pictures of living beings overhead or on the sides.

16. Standing in a back row for a congregational Prayer when there is room for standing in a front row.

17. Responding to somebody's greeting with a gesture of the head or hand.

18. Keeping the eyes closed while praying unless it is done with a view to achieving concentration.

19. Prostrating oneself by touching only the forehead on the ground, or only the nose, or the edge of the cap, or a fold of the turban.

20. Sitting square during the prayer without a genuine reason, or sitting with the hips and hands resting on the ground and knees in contact with the belly and chest.

21. Standing of the Imam or of the followers separately on raised ground, unless unavoidable, if, however, some of the followers stand with the Imam on raised ground, there is no harm.

22. Bending down for Ruku before finishing the recitation properly and trying to complete it in the posture of Ruku.

23 Reciting the Qur'an regardless of the sequence in the various rak'ahs of the Fard Prayer, for instance, reciting Surah Al-lkhlas (112) in the first rak'ah and Surah Al-Lahab (111) in the second rak'ah or reciting two Surahs one after the other, omitting in between a short Surah containing three verses, or reciting a few verses of a Surah in the first rak'ah and then, omitting one or two verses in between, reciting the next few verses in the second rak'ah. Likewise, it is undesirable to recite two Surahs one after the other in the same rak'ah omitting in between one or more. short or long, intermediary Surahs, or recite a longer Surah or passage in the second rak'ah and a shorter one in the first rak'ah, or recite always one and the same Surah in the prayer; however, if one commits an error with regard to sequence due to forgetfulness, there is no harm.

24. Neglecting a sunnat part in the prayer.

25. Raising both the feet off the ground in Sajdah.

26. Counting the verses, Surahs or Tasbihs on the fingers.

27. Stretching the limbs to shake off lethargy.

28. Praying with something pressed in the month, unless it does not obstruct the recitation; if it does, the Prayer will be rendered void.

CASES IN WHICH PRAYER MAY BE BROKEN

1. When the train is going to start and one has children and luggage on board, one may break the prayer.

2. If a snake appears in front, or a scorpion or wasp or other poisonous insect has entered the garments, one must break the prayer, kill the harmful animal or insect first and then resume the prayer.

3. If a cat has appeared and is likely to harm poultry, pigeons or other domestic fowls, it is permissible to break the prayer and drive it away.

4. In case of a danger of material loss, e.g., boiling over of the milk or burning away of a kettle on the fire when a housewife is engaged in prayer; or danger of theft of the umbrella, shoes, or other luggage of a person who has put them in an unsafe place and started the prayer in a mosque; or a woman's remembering that she did not secure the door before standing up for the prayer and there is a likelihood of theft, or a dog, cat or monkey has entered the house and there is a possibility of damage being done to property, etc. However, if one feels that the loss or damage occurring would be negligible, one should complete the prayer and avoid breaking it unnecessarily.

5. If a person feels a strong desire for passing stool or urine, he should break the prayer and relieve himself and then resume the prayer with a fresh Wudu.

6. If there is a danger of a blind person's falling and drowning in a stream, canal or well, it is imperative to give up the prayer and save him. If this is not done and the blind person suffers an injury or loses his life, the one praying will be a sinner and held responsible of negligence.

7. If a person's clothing catches fire, or a baby reaches the edge of the roof and is likely to fall down, or a monkey or ape enters the house and is likely to carry away a baby, or a baby has picked up a sharp knife or blade and is likely to injure itself or somebody else, or there is the danger of a child's being attacked by a thief or robber or enemy or a wild beast, etc. it is imperative to give up the prayer and help save life. If one does not do so, one will be a sinner.

8. If a person's parents or grandparents call him for help in affliction, he must give up even the Fard Prayer and go to help them. If, however, there is somebody else nearby to render help, then one should not break the Fard Prayer, but if one is engaged in a Sunnat or Nafl Prayer, one must break it and attend to them, even if the help needed is of an ordinary nature.

NOTES

1. According to Imam Shafi'i, both the males and the females should raise the hands to shoulder level.

2. According to Abu Da'ud, the Holy Prophet raised his hands up to shoulder level from under his over garment in winter.

3. According to Imam Shafi'i and the Ahl al-Hadith, males also have to place the hands on the breast. However, according to an authentic Tradition reported by 'Alqamah from Wa'il bin Hujr, the latter saw the Holy Prophet with his hands placed under the navel. The Ahl al-Hadith therefore, are not correct in their assertion that placing the hands under the navel is not supported by Hadith. (Al-Qual al Hazim by Allama Farang-i-mahalli).

4. The following supplication is also supported by Hadith:

(Allahumma ba'id baini wa baina khatayaya kama ba'atta bain al-mashriq-i wal-maghrib; Allahumma naqqini min al-khataya kama yunaqqth-thaub ul-abyad-u min ad-danas; Allahumm aghsil khatayaya min-al-ma'i wa-th-thalj-i wal-barad).

"O Allah! keep me away from my sins as is the east from the west. O Allah! purify me from my sins as is a white garment from dirt. O Allah! wash off my sins with water and snow and hail."

According to Imam Abu Yusuf, it is commendable to recite the following invocation:

(Inni wajjaht-u wajhiya lillazi fatar-s-samawat-i wal-arda hanif-am wa ma ana min al-mushrikin. Inna Salati wa nusuki wa zalika umirt-u wa ana awwal-uo-muslimin).

"I have turned my face sincerely towards that Being Who created the heavens and the earth, and I am not from among the idolatrous people. My Salat and my rites of worship and my life and my death are all for Allah, the Lord of the universe, Who has no partner with Him. This is what I have been enjoined and I am the first to surrender to Him'.

5. This is according to the Hanafi Imams. Imam Malik also has supported this view in one of his sayings and Imam Shafi'i as well in one of his later pronouncements, though according to Hadith, it is permissible to pronounce Aamin both audibly and inaudibly. It is, therefore, wrong to create schisms owing to this difference of opinion and condemn one another. One may follow and practise either of the ways as both are based on the practice and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet,

6. There is no harm if a person does so once to clean the place.

7. Such things are very common among the people, and need to be avoided carefully by paying full attention to the meaning and praying with due concentration.

8. This is for males. Females have to rest their elbows squarely on the ground during Sajdah.

9. The restrictions of sequence are not applicable to Taravih or other voluntary prayers

Source: everymuslim

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